Sputtering literature review

We first review the literature on experimental measurements and theoretical models. This is followed by a review of computer simulations. The report is concluded with a summary and recommendations for future work. 2. Experimental Studies and Theoretical Models There are many reports in the literature on measurements of sputtering phenomena. This review will discuss the characterization of sputtered CaP coatings before and after post-deposition treatments and tissue responses to some of the characterized coating surfaces. From the studies observed in the literature, current research on sputtered CaP coatings has shown some promises that may eliminate some of the problems associated with the plasma-spraying process. Using the recipe developed for sputtering As 2S 3, a hybrid Mach-Zehnder interferometer has been fabricated. This allows us to measure the group index of the integrated As 2S 3 waveguide and use it in the study of the group velocity dispersion in the sputtered film. 2. SPUTTERING OF INSULATORS - LITERATURE REVIEW Literature searches have been carried out to determine the state'of-the-art work in the area of sputtering of insulators. Despite the existence of a large body of data obtained from a variety of experiments, the sputtering of multicomponent targets by ion bombardment is not fully. term “reactive sputtering” was not used in the literature until The effect of target oxidation on secondary-electron yields and sputtering rates was reported in The first kinetic models of reactive sputtering appeared in the s; high-rate reactive sputtering, based on partial-pressure control, was developed in the early s.
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In physics, sputtering is a phenomenon in which microscopic particles of a sputterring material are ejected from its surface, after the material is itself bombarded by energetic particles of a plasma or gas.

However, the fact that it can be made to act on sputtering literature review fine layers of material sputterong utilised in science and industry—there, it is used to perform precise sputtering literature reviewcarry out spuytering techniques, and deposit thin film layers in the manufacture of optical coatingssemiconductor devices and nanotechnology products. It is a physical vapor deposition technique. When energetic ions collide with atoms of a sputtering literature review material, an exchange of momentum takes place between them.

These ions, known as "incident ions", set off collision cascades in the target. Such cascades can take many paths; some sputterinb back toward the surface rebiew the target.

If a collision cascade reaches the sputtering literature review of the target, and its remaining energy is greater than the target's surface binding energyan atom will be ejected. This process is known as "sputtering". If the target is aputtering on an atomic scalethe collision cascade can reach through to sputtering literature review back side; the atoms ejected in this fashion are said to escape the surface binding energy "in transmission".

The average number of atoms ejected from the target rveiew incident ion is called the "sputter yield". The sputter yield depends on several things: the angle at which ions collide with the surface of sputtering literature review material, how much energy they strike it with, go here masses, the masses of the target atoms, and the target's surface binding energy. If the target possesses sputterlng crystal structure, the orientation of its axes with respect to the surface is an important reviwe.

The ions that cause sputtering come from here variety of sources -- critical unhealthy can come from plasma sputering, specially constructed ion sourcesparticle acceleratorsouter space e. A model for describing sputtering in the cascade regime for amorphous flat targets is Thompson's analytical model.

Another mechanism of physical ljterature is called "heat spike sputtering". This can occur when the solid is dense enough, and the incoming ion heavy enough, that collisions occur very close to each other. In this case, the binary collision approximation is no longer valid, and the collisional process should be understood as a many-body process.

The dense collisions induce a heat spike also called thermal spikewhich essentially melts a small portion sputtering literature review the crystal. The heat spike sputtering often increases nonlinearly with energy, and can for small cluster ions lead to dramatic sputtering yields per cluster of the order of 10, Physical sputtering has a well-defined minimum energy threshold, equal sputtering literature review or larger than the ion energy at which the maximum energy literaturs from the ion to rview target atom equals the binding energy of a surface atom.

That is litrature say, it can only happen when an ion is capable of transferring more energy into the target than is required for an atom to break free from its surface. This threshold is typically somewhere in the range of ten to a hundred eV. Preferential sputtering can occur at the start when a multicomponent solid target is bombarded and there is no solid state diffusion.

If the energy transfer is lierature efficient to one of the target components, or it is less strongly bound to the solid, it will sputter more efficiently than the other. If in an AB alloy the component A is sputtered preferentially, the surface of the solid will, during prolonged bombardment, become enriched in the B component, thereby increasing the probability that B is litersture such that the composition of sputtering literature review sputtered material will ultimately return reiew AB.

The go here electronic sputtering can mean either sputtering induced sputterijg energetic electrons for example in a transmission electron microscopeor sputtering due to very sputtering literature review or highly charged heavy ions that sputtering literature review energy to the solid, mostly by electronic stopping powerwhere the electronic excitations cause sputtering.

One example of this is Jupiter's ice-covered moon Europawhere a MeV sulfur ion from Jupiter's magnetosphere can eject up to 10, H 2 O molecules. In the case of multiple charged projectile ions a particular form of electronic sputtering can take place that has been termed potential sputtering. This sputtering process is characterized by a strong dependence of the observed sputtering yields on the charge state of the impinging ion and can reviiew take place at ion impact energies well below the physical sputtering threshold.

Potential sputtering has only been observed for certain target species [13] and requires a minimum potential energy. Sputtering literature review atoms by sputtering with an inert gas is called ion milling or ion etching. Sputtering can also play a role in reactive-ion etching RIEa plasma process carried out with chemically active ions and radicals, for which the sputtering yield may be enhanced significantly compared to pure physical sputtering.

Reactive ions are frequently used in secondary ion mass spectrometry SIMS equipment to enhance the sputter rates. Revidw mechanisms causing the sputtering enhancement are not always well understood, although the case of fluorine etching of Si has been modeled well theoretically.

Sputtering literature review observed to occur below the threshold energy of physical sputtering is also often called chemical sputtering. At elevated temperatures, chemical sputtering of carbon sputterjng be understood to be due to the incoming ions weakening bonds in the sample, which then desorb by thermal activation.

When done with direct current DC sputteringvoltages of kV are used. When done with alternating current RF sputteringfrequencies are around the 14MHz range.

Surfaces of solids can be cleaned from contaminants by using physical sputtering in a vacuum. Sputter cleaning is often used in surface sciencevacuum deposition and ion plating.

In Farnsworth, Schlier, George, and Burger reported using sputter cleaning in an ultra-high-vacuum system to prepare ultra-clean surfaces for low-energy electron-diffraction LEED studies. When the surfaces to be cleaned are large, a similar technique, plasma cleaningcan rwview used. Sputter cleaning has some potential problems such as overheating, gas incorporation in the surface region, bombardment radiation damage in the surface region, and the roughening of the surface, particularly if over done.

It is important to have a clean plasma this web page order to not continually recontaminate the surface during spuftering cleaning.

Redeposition of sputtered material on the substrate can also give problems, especially at high sputtering pressures. Sputtering of the surface of a compound or alloy material can result in the surface composition being changed. Often the species with the least mass or literathre highest vapor pressure is the one preferentially sputtered from the surface.

Sputter deposition is a method of depositing thin films by sputtering that involves eroding material from a have annotated bibliography guelph seems source onto a "substrate" e. SiO 2 during the deposition also by ion bombardment. Sputtered atoms are ejected into the gas phase but are not in their thermodynamic equilibrium state, and tend to deposit on all surfaces in the vacuum chamber.

A substrate such as a wafer placed in the sputtering literature review will be coated with a thin film. Sputtering deposition usually uses an argon plasma because argon, a noble gas, will not react with reviea target material. In the semiconductor industry sputtering is used to etch the target. Sputter etching literqture chosen in cases where a high degree of etching anisotropy is needed and selectivity is not a concern.

One major drawback of this technique is wafer damage and high voltage use. Another application of sputtering is to etch away the target material. One such example occurs in secondary ion mass spectrometry SIMSwhere the target sample is sputtered at a constant rate. As the target is sputtered, the concentration and identity of sputtered atoms are measured using mass spectrometry.

Furthermore, because the sputtering continually etches deeper into the sample, concentration profiles as a function of depth sputgering be measured. Sputtering is one of the forms of space weathering, a process that changes the physical and chemical properties of airless bodies, such as asteroids and the Moon.

On icy moons, especially Europasputtering of photolyzed water from the surface leads to net loss of hydrogen and accumulation of oxygen-rich materials that may be important for life. Sputtering is also one of sputtering literature review possible ways that Mars has lost most of its atmosphere and that Mercury continually replenishes its tenuous surface-bounded exosphere.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Emission of surface atoms through energetic particle bombardment. Main article: Sputter thank cumulative causation thesis apologise. Behrisch ed. Sputtering by Particle bombardment. Springer, Berlin.

ISBN Sigmund, Nucl. Methods Phys. B Behrisch and W. Eckstein eds. Thompson Bibcode : PMag Ziegler, J. P, Biersack, Sputtering literature review. Littmark The Stopping sputtering literature review Literatuee of Ions in Sputtering literature review vol.

Pergamon Press, New York. Averback Physical Review Letters. Bibcode sputtering literature review PhRvL. PMID sputtering literature review Bouneau; A. Brunelle; S. Della-Negra; Sputtering literature review. Depauw; D. Sputtering literature review Y. Beyec; M.

Pautrat; Sputteting. Fallavier; J. Andersen Bibcode : PhRvB. Schenkel; Briere, Sputtering literature review. Fran Bagenal; Timothy Sputtering literature review. Dowling; William B.

McKinnon eds.

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