Slaughter literature review

The present paper reviews the occurrence of neoplasms in swine and presents a case series of 56 tumors submitted to the Slaughterhouse Support Network (Servei de Suport a Escorxadors [SESC] IRTA-CReSA]) from slaughtered pigs from to (April) in Catalonia (Spain). This literature review focuses on practices, scientific papers and opinions in relation to the bleeding of slaughter lambs during all types of Halal-compatible slaughter with a focus on NS and EHOS. Even when students take a certain course because they are really interested in the subject, Slaughter Literature Review this still doesn’t mean Slaughter Literature Review that they enjoy every aspect of it. You might love the specialty you’ve chosen Slaughter Literature Review and the things you learn and still struggle with some things. Like essay writing, for example. The paper "Lamb to the Slaughter by Roald Dahl" describes that we can only hope that the use of food as a weapon will not leave in the story of Roald Dahl because if it indeed will be used as a weapon, it is scary because we will not know that what we are eating could kill us Download full paper File studyuniversity.info, available for editing. Neoplastic lesions in domestic pigs detected at slaughter: literature review and a year review (–) of carcass inspection in Catalonia Antonia Morey-Matamalas, # 1 Enric Vidal, # 2 Jorge Martínez, 1, 2 Jaume Alomar, 1 Antonio Ramis, 1 Alberto Marco, 1 Mariano Domingo, 1, 2 and Joaquim Segalés 1, 2.
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Either your web browser doesn't support Javascript or it is currently turned off. In the latter case, please turn on Javascript support in your web browser and reload this page. All data generated or analysed during this study are included in this published article [and its additional files s ]. The aim of the study was to describe the spectrum of spontaneous neoplastic lesions found in slaughtered pigs and to compare the reported tumor cases with previous published data.

Lymphoid neoplasms were characterized and classified using the WHO classification adapted for slaughter literature review. The most reported neoplasm during this period was lymphoma Other submitted non-lymphoid neoplasms included melanoma 7nephroblastoma 3mast cell tumor 2liposarcoma linkosteochondromatosis 2papillary slaughter literature review 1peripheral nerve sheath tumor 1lymphoid leukemia 1fibropapilloma 1hemangiosarcoma 1hepatoma 1histiocytic sarcoma 1pheochromocytoma 1 and osteosarcoma 1.

The existence of a well-established Slaughterhouse Support Network allowed the compilation of comprehensive data for further epidemiological and pathological studies, particularly slaughter literature review less commonly reported lesions in livestock such as neoplasms in pigs.

The online version contains supplementary material available at Safeguarding essay neoplasms in pigs are infrequent because most animals are slaughtered before reaching maturity. In just click for source species, neoplasia does not frequently cause clinical signs, thus it is typically diagnosed as an incidental finding in carcasses at slaughterhouse [ 1 ].

Detection during meat inspection is based on visual inspection and time and workload restrictions do not allow for detailed investigation and macroscopic descriptions. Moreover, macroscopic lesions are usually not distinct or specific and some neoplastic and infectious disease lesions go here similar appearance e.

In swine, the most slauughter reported neoplasms are those of lymphoid origin [ 3 — 13 ] and, to a lesser extent, melanomas [ 14 literatkre 16 ]. Several abattoir surveys reviewed the different neoplasms found in slaughtered domestic animals and their incidence in the past slaughter literature review years. In the late s, a large histologic survey of neoplasms in slaughtered animals was carried out throughout abattoirs in Great Britain, which led to a comprehensive liherature of neoplastic lesions in swine, bovine and sheep including the type of neoplasm and incidence encountered per organ [ 3slaughter literature review — 23 ].

Slaughter literature review, inBrandly and Migaki presented slaughte 8-year survey which described different neoplasms detected in domestic animals slaughtered in the United States [ 24 ]. Other surveys conducted in Denver United States [ 25 ], Canada [ 26 ], Czech Slaughter literature review [ 27 ] and the Republic of South Africa [ 28 ] were also published during that period.

Since then, only sporadic case reports and occasional case study series [ 29 ] have been published. Click the following article increase in miniature pigs — Vietnamese and Pot-bellied pigs - as pets prompted a study of neoplastic conditions due to its longer lifespan. A retrospective study in 63 pot-bellied pigs summarized the http://studyuniversity.info/do-my-essay/elevator-pitch-dissertation.html of different neoplasms in these breeds [ 30 ].

Frequently identified neoplasms were those affecting the reproductive tract including leiomyoma and leiomyosarcomaliver hepatocellular slaughter literature review biliary carcinomas and gastrointestinal tissues colonic carcinoma [ 30 ].

Slaughter literature review mentioned earlier, lymphoma is the most common neoplasm in pigs. All ages and both sexes are affected, with a higher incidence reported in females. The most common subtype is the multicentric form, characterized by enlargement slaughter literature review visceral lymph nodes rather than peripheral with or without infiltration of internal organs, being the liver, spleen and kidneys the most commonly affected.

Regarding revoew histological classification of these neoplasms, no slaughter literature review data using the WHO classification of lymphoid neoplasms has been slauggter to a large series of porcine lymphomas [ 31 ]. In the present paper, slaughter literature review detected in 56 slaughtered pigs in Catalonia from to April are described.

The aim of the study was to describe the spectrum of spontaneous neoplastic lesions found in pigs slaughtered and to compare check this out reported neoplasms in the present case series with previously published data. Additionally, immunohistochemical characterization and classification of lymphoid neoplasms following the WHO guidelines was applied. Three categories of publication have been established: 1 abattoir surveys, 2 case series studies and 3 single case reports.

Of the 65 selected slauyhter, 12 A list of the type of reported neoplasms, organ affected primary and frequency is shown in Slaughter literature review 1. List of reported neoplasm types alphabetic orderorgan affected primary and number. The number of cases per organ is indicated in brackets when a neoplasm has been described in more than one organ.

Metastases to other organs are not included. A list of the type luterature reported neoplasms, organ affected primary and frequency is shown in Table 2. The last group of papers included single case reports, with a total of 40 A list of the type of reported neoplasms, organ affected slaughter literature review and frequency is shown in Table 3.

A collection of 56 neoplastic lesions was compiled retrospectively between January and April Since the implementation of the SESC in as slaughter literature review support service, the number of detected slaughter literature review cases increased remarkably. One organ was submitted in 12 out of 56 cases In the present case series, 33 In regards of sex distribution, 27 Out of the 27 females, 18 The females were mainly breeding sows, which were slaughtered at high parity numbers.

Within the group of fattening pigs, animals commonly reached the slaughterhouse at 6 months of age, and less commonly, slightly later. Other neoplastic lesions recorded in this series, with only 1 1. The proportion of all neoplasms is shown in Table 4. Neoplastic lesions in pig carcasses. Case Diffuse enlargement and paleness of the literathre. Multifocal, coalescing, whitish link lesions throughout the parietal pleura.

Multifocal-to-coalescing raised lesions on the skin. Multifocal generalized white nodular lesions protruding over the liver capsule. Bilateral ovaric slaughter literature review enlargement, hemorrhagic on the surface and whitish when sectioned.

Multiple clustered grape —like fluid filled cystic lesions of variable diameters throughout the abdominal serosa. Information on all studied cases is summarized in Additional file 2 including information about age, breed, sex, organ, gross findings, meat inspector suspicion and final diagnosis.

A single case of B-cell leukemia was recorded in a male fattening pig. Of the 29 pigs with lymphoid neoplasms, 16 Regarding the age, 14 The 28 lymphoma and the leukemia cases were bibliography awesome annotated by applying the adapted WHO classification of lymphomas for animals [ 31 ] litfrature the following results Table 5 and Additional file 3. One 3. Within the mature B-cell neoplasms, one 3.

Within the mature T-cell neoplasms, three litdrature Five Three Cases 19 and 46 presented morphological and immunohistochemical B and T cell markers features which did not fit into any of the current WHO categories described in domestic animals. For case 42 immunohistochemical characterization was not available.

Lymphoid neoplasms detected in slaughtered pigs in Catalonia between January and April The WHO lymphoma classification adapted to domestic animals was used [ 3174 ].

Lymphoma classification in pigs. Representative images of different slaughtwr subtypes. HE, x. IHC for CD20, hematoxylin counterstain, x. IHC for CD3, hematoxylin counterstain, x. An increase in the detection of neoplasms in pigs has been noticed in the last 10 years in Catalonia since the implementation of the SESC, a service that provides diagnostic support to meat inspectors. The highest incidence of detected cases was inthat was less than one case for every 2 million pigs.

However, the incidence of neoplastic cases in pigs over the total number of pigs slaughtered per year in the region is very low and thus represents a close to negligible economic impact Additional file 4. The low number of cases submitted could be explained in part because enquiries sent to the SESC are voluntary for the VMI and, therefore, not all cases are submitted, particularly those easily macroscopically recognizable e.

Therefore, in these cases, a macroscopic diagnosis is established without further laboratory confirmation. Therefore, slaughter literature review cases slaughter literature review liiterature those which are uncommon or rare and cannot be recognized easily.

Learning motivation of the inspectors also influences whether a case is submitted or not. Consequently, the information obtained in this case series most likely underestimates the real incidence of neoplastic lesions in Catalonia during the studied period. These results agreed with previous publications in the veterinary literature, where a slaughter literature review incidence of neoplasms in this species has been reported [ 3 concluding argumentative, 17 — 2628 ], particularly due to the fact that pigs are usually slaughtered before reaching maturity, at the age of 5—6 months [ continue reading ] and also due to certain underreporting as discussed slaughter literature review. Despite the negligible economic impact of neoplastic lesions in swine, a scientific concern prevails in the surveillance of neoplastic diseases.

Spontaneous carcinogenesis in the slaughter literature review represents a useful model, given the anatomical and slaughter literature review similarities between pigs and humans, slaughter literature review well as the broad availability of this species [ link75 ]. The availability of a neoplasm database in spaughter is required to better see emergence tendencies in this type of lesions and to notice any variations in the slqughter e.

In this study, neoplasms were observed more in fattening pigs and in regards of gender predisposition, it was higher in adult females compared to males. For that reason, is not rare to observe slaughter literature review detected neoplasms in young pigs and in adult females, although proportionally, as expected, the incidence is superior in older animals. Lymphoid neoplasms are the most common tumors in pigs and this revifw reflected in the larger number of lymphoid neoplasms compared to other types both in our study and in previously published literature [ 3 — 13 ].

In this study, An approach to the human WHO lymphoma classification using the one as applied in animals allowed the identification of one precursor lymphoid cell neoplasm classified as B-LBL. Five null cell lymphomas were also reported, and three remained as unclassified.

Only 5 of the described 15 lymphoma subtypes for animals were identified in this case series [ 31 ]. As listed above, in this study, lymphomas slaufhter predominantly B-cell in origin and classified as DLBCL based on morphology and immunophenotype and the most affected organs where liver, kidney, spleen and lymph nodes.

The results are comparable to published data in dogs [ 317778 ], where DLBCL is the most commonly diagnosed. On the other hand, slaughter literature review results differ from previous studies in swine, where DLBCL represented a small subset [ 11 ] and goats, where they are predominantly classified as T cell lymphomas [ 79 ]. The classification of lymphoid neoplasms was based on the WHO guidelines, which includes characteristics of tissue architecture, cellular morphology and immunophenotyping.

The major limitations of slaughtet present study were 1 availability of further click testing only CD20 and CD3 markers were used and 2 accuracy of reported clinical data.

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